Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Main features, symptoms and / or cognitive demonstrations and physiological and kinetic

How does one distinguish normal anxiety and pathological anxiety?

Anxiety (normal or healthy) is defined as a natural and essential emotional reaction, a normal response to daily stress, where there is the presence of a certain apprehension of painful events. The threat seems more diffuse, vague or distant in the case of fear. Anxiety is generally used to direct attention to a danger or threat and can prepare the body to take action to bring about change.

It can also improve performance, motivate the individual to excel and serve as alarm signal when there is a danger and thereby ensure survival1. However, when this reaction persists for no apparent reason and it causes some problems in the functioning of the individual, anxiety is then termed pathological.

In addition, other criteria must be analyzed to distinguish normal anxiety of pathological anxiety such as intensity, frequency, pain, the moment of its appearance, sense of control (or not) on anxiety symptoms and the duration of those ci1.

How can manifest anxiety?

Anxiety can manifest itself in various ways. Indeed, it is possible to classify these events into four categories1:

affective symptoms (fear, anxiety, irritability, etc.).
physiological symptoms (dizziness, palpitations, shortness of breath, numbness, etc.).
cognitive symptoms (difficulty concentrating, fear of going crazy, losing control, having a heart attack, etc.).
behavioral symptoms (agitation, avoidance, edgy attitude, etc.)..
It appears important to note that these symptoms are usually not present at the same time or in each of the anxiety disorders. Indeed, a person may, for example, feel that only a few of these symptoms at once. In addition, some of them are more typical of a disorder in particular1.

How the mental health professionals they diagnose the presence of an anxiety disorder in an individual?

During clinical interviews and using different assessment tools (questionnaires, grids, etc.), mental health professionals are usually able to diagnose an individual struggling with an anxiety disorder. To this end, the majority of psychologists, psychiatrists and doctors are able to detect one or the other anxiety disorders as well as make a diagnosis.

How many people are struggling with an anxiety disorder in the population?

It seems that anxiety is the abnormal psychological problem most current1. Indeed, according to recent statistics, 10 to 15% of people consulting a GP large1 suffer from anxiety symptoms. Moreover, in the general population, 25% of people seem to have experienced intense anxiety at one time or another in their lives and about 7.5% of them are struggling with an anxiety disorder particular1.

A person with an anxiety disorder can she get out?

The scientific literature has demonstrated for anxiety disorders it was possible for an individual to reduce some of its symptoms and regain social functioning, personal and interpersonal satisfying and sometimes even without treatment with a professional. Professional help is important when a person with symptoms associated with an anxiety disorder sees its overall functioning affected and / or a significant pain associated with it.

At present, the treatment of choice for all anxiety disorders, appears to be the therapy of cognitive-behavioral approach. Moreover, it frequently happens that people with any anxiety disorder take medication. For further details on this, it is possible to see the following section: Pharmacotherapy.

For family
Certainly, anxiety disorders frequently have many negative impacts on the physical and psychological functioning, as well as the social, occupational and economic status of individuals who suffer (Gladis et al., 1999; Mendlowicz & Stein, 2000). Moreover, the negative effects of these disorders on the functioning of those who are affected are not without consequence for the family.

Relatives are frequently witnessed various behaviors difficult to understand from the individual as anxious avoidance (eg. Refuse an invitation to the restaurant), leakage (eg. Disaster out in a movie theater) rituals (eg. repeatedly check if the front door is locked), requests for reinsurance (eg. ask the same question several times), panic attacks (eg. afraid to die entering an airplane), etc..

Initially, relatives tend to adapt to the various manifestations of anxiety by changing some of the roles they assumed and adjusting according to the needs of the person with anxiety disorder. However, As the chronicise anxiety disorder, conflict and an atmosphere of tension can appear. Firstly relatives can become more intolerant of manifestations of anxiety and the need to have to adapt.

On the other hand, the individual is anxious can feel misunderstood and isolated or a vain attempt to limit the negative impact of the disorder on his entourage. In this context, the family usually try to help the anxious person to the best of their knowledge so that they regain functionality.

What to do if a loved one appears or is struggling with an anxiety disorder?

As a first step, it is desirable to encourage the individual anxious to therapy in this case a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) since it is more effective than other forms of psychotherapy for the treatment of all anxiety disorders. In addition, it is possible for relatives to provide support and adequate help.

However, providing such support is particularly challenging given that the identification of supportive behaviors helping, that is to say, that meet the needs of individuals with an anxiety disorder are not clear. Indeed, some supportive behaviors may be perceived as meaningful by individuals with an anxiety disorder because they cause a rapid decrease in anxiety and physiological reactions associated.

However, many of these behaviors can be cons-productive because they contribute to the development or maintenance of the disorder by increasing avoidance and anxiety. For example, a patient with generalized anxiety disorder that is frequently advise a reassuringly close about his concerns will generally report a positive impression of this form of support while reinsurance reinforces intolerance to uncertainty, an important component of the disorder.

It is the same when a loved one changes its behavior depending on the condition (eg by performing a compulsive ritual in place of the other in order to avoid "stuck" with his doubts). The relative can also try to "secure" the individual anxiety by helping a tangible example by driving the car instead of an individual with panic disorder with agoraphobia is afraid to make a panic attack and fainted at the wheel.

What strategies can be appropriate caregivers and from someone close to a person struggling with an anxiety disorder?

To show empathy to the distress experienced
Consider the person as it is and help to identify other than by anxiety
Encourage them to seek professional help if necessary
Promote positive changes as gradually exposing themselves to phobic stimuli
Learn about the characteristics of the disorder, its development and appropriate treatment
Recognize and reinforce any progress, however small it may be
Evaluate progress according to the situation of the individual and not by an absolute standard (eg absence of symptoms)
Lower expectations during periods of stress
Be flexible and try to maintain a normal
Will give the right to the opportunity to feel helpless and frustrated

What strategies should be avoided by close to a person with an anxiety disorder?

Blame the individual or anxious themselves for the disorder
Criticize the anxious person in the way it manages its difficulties
Minimize the importance of psychological and physical discomfort
Require the anxious individual things he is afraid to
Encourage the person anxious to avoid or escape a situation
Organize their lives solely in terms of anxiety disorder
Take responsibility for the "cure" anxiety disorder
Abandon efforts to help the person anxious to get out

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